From the affination to IER absorption to packing stages, CSR (99042-V) uses only the most state-of-the-art machines, systems and processes to transform raw sugar crystals into ready-to-use products.


This process removes the thin layer of molasses and impurites from raw sugar crystals using centrifugal machines. The "washed sugar" is dissolved to form "raw syrup" for further colour removal in the following stages

Carbonation & Filteration

This is a lime defecation process, in which the raw syrup is limed with Milk of Lime before carbon dioxide is bubbled through the mixture. Precipitates of calcium carbonate then form, trapping colour and impurities. Colour removal of 55-60% is achieved in this step. The mixture is filtered to remove the precipitates, including brown sugar.

IER Absorption

Ion-Exchange resin is used in this stage to absord the colourant in the brown syrup. Colour removal is approximately 80%. The light amber syrup produced is called fine syrup.

Evaporation & Crystalisation

Fine syrup is concentrated using a double-effect evaporation system to concentration of 72%. The concentrated sytrup is then further evaporated under vacuum in boiling pans. Crystals are formed in this process.


Sugar crystals are extracted by separation from the mother syrup using centrifugal machines.

Drying, Cooling and Screening

The sugar crystals are dried to a moisture content of less than 0.20%, cooled toa temperature of less than 40°C and then screened into fine and medium grained-sized products.


The products are finally packed into packages of various sizes.